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# Gogo

The Gogo shell is a unix bash like shell for OSGi frameworks. However, unlike bash (which coerces all arguments to strings), the Gogo shell manipulates data objects and their public methods as command names. Gogo supports programmatic features like variables and closures.

## Built-in Commands

When interacting with a running OSGi a framework, as in the Debug Tutorial, if you see a q! prompt then you are using Gogo.

    g!


Issue the command help to list available commands.

 felix:bundlelevel
felix:cd
felix:frameworklevel
...
...
gogo:cat
gogo:each
gogo:echo
...
...
scr:config
scr:disable
scr:enable
scr:info
scr:list


Notice that the commands are grouped. In the above we can see three command scopes: i.e. felix, gogo & scr; other command groups may also be created.

The following set of commands are immediate of use: (The following examples use Debug Tutorial).

### felix:lb, lb

The felix:lb command lists the installed bundles.

 g! lb
START LEVEL 1
ID|State      |Level|Name
0|Active     |    0|System Bundle (5.7.0.SNAPSHOT)|5.7.0.SNAPSHOT
1|Active     |    1|Logback Classic Module (1.2.3)|1.2.3
2|Active     |    1|Logback Core Module (1.2.3)|1.2.3
3|Active     |    1|JSR 353 (JSON Processing) API (1.0.0)|1.0.0
4|Active     |    1|Apache Aries Javax Annotation API (0.0.1.201711291743)|0.0.1.201711291743
5|Active     |    1|Apache Aries JAX-RS Specification API (0.0.1.201803051642)|0.0.1.201803051642
6|Active     |    1|Apache Aries JAX-RS Whiteboard (0.0.1.201803051643)|0.0.1.201803051643
7|Active     |    1|Apache Commons FileUpload (1.3.2)|1.3.2
8|Active     |    1|Apache Commons IO (2.5.0)|2.5.0
9|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Configuration Admin Service (1.9.0.SNAPSHOT)|1.9.0.SNAPSHOT
10|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Gogo Command (1.0.2)|1.0.2
11|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Gogo Runtime (1.0.10)|1.0.10
12|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Gogo Shell (1.0.0)|1.0.0
13|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Http Jetty (3.4.7.R7-SNAPSHOT)|3.4.7.R7-SNAPSHOT
14|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Servlet API (1.1.2)|1.1.2
15|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Inventory (1.0.4)|1.0.4
16|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Declarative Services (2.1.0.SNAPSHOT)|2.1.0.SNAPSHOT
17|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Web Management Console (4.3.4)|4.3.4
18|Active     |    1|Apache Felix Web Console Service Component Runtime/Declarative Services Plugin (2.0.8)|2.0.8
19|Active     |    1|impl (1.0.0.201803052117)|1.0.0.201803052117
20|Active     |    1|org.osgi:org.osgi.service.jaxrs (1.0.0.201803012137-SNAPSHOT)|1.0.0.201803012137-SNAPSHOT
21|Active     |    1|org.osgi:org.osgi.util.function (1.1.0.201803012137-SNAPSHOT)|1.1.0.201803012137-SNAPSHOT
22|Active     |    1|org.osgi:org.osgi.util.promise (1.1.0.201803012137-SNAPSHOT)|1.1.0.201803012137-SNAPSHOT
23|Active     |    1|osgi.cmpn (4.3.1.201210102024)|4.3.1.201210102024
24|Active     |    1|slf4j-api (1.7.25)|1.7.25


### felix:bundle, bundle

Detailed information on a select bundle is provided by the bundle command.

 g! bundle 19
Location             jar/impl-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
State                32
RegisteredServices   [Upper]
Bundle                  19|Active     |    1|org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.impl (1.0.0.201803052117)
Revisions            [org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.impl [19](R 19.0)]
BundleContext        org.apache.felix.framework.BundleContextImpl@69653e16
SymbolicName         org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.impl
BundleId             19
Version              1.0.0.201803052117
LastModified         1520685956190
Headers              [Service-Component=OSGI-INF/org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.Upper.xml, Created-By=1.8.0_162 (Oracle Corporation), Manifest-Version=1.0, Bnd-LastModified=1520284643255, Private-Package=org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest, Bundle-Name=impl, Build-Jdk=1.8.0_162, Import-Package=javax.ws.rs, Provide-Capability=osgi.service;objectClass:List<String>="org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.Upper", Bundle-ManifestVersion=2, Bundle-SymbolicName=org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.impl, Bundle-Version=1.0.0.201803052117, Built-By=richardnicholson, Require-Capability=osgi.extender;filter:="(&(osgi.extender=osgi.component)(version>=1.3.0)(!(version>=2.0.0)))",osgi.extender;filter:="(&(osgi.extender=osgi.component)(&(version>=1.4.0)(!(version>=2.0.0))))",osgi.implementation;filter:="(&(osgi.implementation=osgi.http)(&(version>=1.1.0)(!(version>=2.0.0))))",osgi.implementation;filter:="(&(osgi.implementation=osgi.jaxrs)(&(version>=1.0.0)(!(version>=2.0.0))))",osgi.contract;osgi.contract=JavaJAXRS;filter:="(&(osgi.contract=JavaJAXRS)(version=2.1.0))",osgi.ee;filter:="(&(osgi.ee=JavaSE)(version=1.8))", Tool=Bnd-4.0.0.201803042323-SNAPSHOT]


### felix:inspect, inspect

The inspect command can be used to look at the runtime Requirements and Capabilities of a selected Bundle: see Namespaces for currently supported Req/Cap namespaces.

Example of usage.

 g! inspect req osgi.wiring.package 19
org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.impl [19] requires:
-------------------------------------------------------------
osgi.wiring.package; (osgi.wiring.package=javax.ws.rs) resolved by:
osgi.wiring.package; javax.ws.rs 2.1.0 from org.apache.aries.javax.jax.rs-api [5]


Indicates that looking at the osgi.wiring.package namespacem, org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.impl has a runtime Requirement on javax.ws.rs 2.1.0, which has been successfully satisfied by org.apache.aries.javax.jax.rs-api.

### scr:list, list

The scr scope concerns the Declarative Services layer of the runtime: scr:list lists all running DS components.

 g! scr:list
BundleId Component Name Default State
Component Id State      PIDs (Factory PID)
[  19]   org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.Upper  enabled
[   0] [active      ]


### scr:info, info

The scr:info command can then be used to list detailed information for a selected DS component.

 g! scr:info org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.Upper
*** Bundle: org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.impl (19)
Component Description:
Name: org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.Upper
Implementation Class: org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.Upper
Default State: enabled
Activation: delayed
Configuration Policy: optional
Activate Method: activate
Deactivate Method: deactivate
Modified Method: -
Configuration Pid: [org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.Upper]
Services:
org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.Upper
Service Scope: singleton
Component Description Properties:
osgi.http.whiteboard.resource.pattern = [/quickstart/*]
osgi.http.whiteboard.resource.prefix = static
osgi.jaxrs.resource = true
Component Configuration:
ComponentId: 0
State: active
Component Configuration Properties:
component.id = 0
component.name = org.osgi.enroute.examples.quickstart.rest.Upper
osgi.http.whiteboard.resource.pattern = [/quickstart/*]
osgi.http.whiteboard.resource.prefix = static
osgi.jaxrs.resource = true


### System Functions

By default, Gogo adds all public methods on the java.lang.System class and the public methods on the session’s BundleContext as command. This gives us access to some interesting System functions:

    g! currenttimemillis
1458158111374
g! property user.dir
property user.dir
/opt/enRoute/enRoutetest/quickstart/app/target
g! nanotime
1373044343558515
g! identityhashcode abc
828301628
g! property foo FOO
g! property foo
FOO
g! env JAVA_HOME
/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_25.jdk/Contents/Home
g! gc
g!


## The Command Shell

The most simple command is echo which works as expected.

g! echo Hello World
Hello World


### History/Editing

In the Eclipse console, you can unfortunately not edit the commands. However, you can access the history using the bang (‘!’).

g! !ech
Hello World
g! !1
Hello World


In standard terminals, you can use the cursor keys to move back and forth.

### Quoting

 Quoting (double or single) is optional if the word does not contain spaces or some special characters like ‘ ’, ‘;’, and some others. So in this case 2 tokens are passed to echo. Notice that we can quote the two words turning it into a single token:
g! echo Hello                     World
Hello World
g! echo 'Hello                     World'
Hello                     World


### Multiple Commands

You can execute multiple commands on a line by separating the commands with a semicolon (';').

g! echo Hello; echo World
Hello
World


Multiple commands can also be separated by a pipe character. In that case the output is the input of the next command. Gogo has a built-in grep command so we can use echo to create output and grep to check the output.

g! echo Hello | grep Hello
Hello
true
g! echo Hello | grep World
Hello
false


### IO Redirection

Two built-in commands cat and tac ( tac = reversed cat because it stores) are available to provide file data and store file data. Together with the pipe operator they replace the input and output redirection of the bash shell.

g! echo Hello | tac temp.txt
Hello
g! echo World | tac -a temp.txt
World
g! cat temp.txt
Hello
World


### Help

Notice that you can find out about the options of a command by using -? (This is not implemented on commands without options and it is not always consistently implemented:

g! tac -?
Usage: tac $-al$ $FILE$
-a --append              append to FILE
-l --list                return List<String>
-? --help                show help


## Objects, Variables, Function …

### Objects

Notice that neither command required anything special, they are just the methods defined on Bundle Context. The implementation has no clue about Gogo. All these commands return domain plain unadorned objects. We can test this because Gogo has variables that store these plain objects. We can then use those objects in the shell as commands.

g! bundle = bundle 4
...
g! $bundle tostring org.apache.felix.scr_2.0.0 [4] g!$bundle bundleid
4
g! $bundle headers Bundle-License http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.txt Manifest-Version 1.0 Created-By Apache Maven Bundle Plugin Bnd-LastModified 1438861013315 Bundle-Name Apache Felix Declarative Services ...  ### Variables Variables can be have any name. They are set with <name>=<expr>. They are referred to by $<name>. Gogo uses variables also itself. For example, the prompt can be changed by setting a new prompt variable.

g! prompt= '$'$


The following variables are in use by the shell:

• e – A function to print the last exception’s stack trace
• exception – The last exception
• exception-cmd – The command that threw the exceptions
• .context – The Bundle Context
• prompt – The shell prompt

### Scope

The syntax feels very natural but there is something a bit tricky going on. The first token in the command can either identify the name of a command or an object. With an object, the next token is the method on that object. This can cause ambiguity. The scope is further discussed later when we add custom commands. Just be aware that the first token is either an object or a command name.

### Literals

We’ve already use string literals. However, it is also possible to use lists and maps:

g! [1 2 3] size
3
g! [a=1 b=2 c=3] get b
2


### Expressions

So how do we access a specific header. A command like $bundle headers get Bundle-Version cannot work because Gogo will see this as one command and will complain with: Cannot coerce headers(String, String) to any of [(), (String)]. The parentheses come to the rescue: g!$bundle headers get Bundle-Version
Cannot coerce headers(String, String) to any of [(), (String)]
g! ($bundle headers) get Bundle-Version 2.0.0  The parentheses first calculate the expression in their inner bowels which then becomes available as the target object for the remaining command. I.e. ($bundle headers) returns a Dictionary object, which subsequently becomes the target object. The get token is the method called on this target object, with the Bundle-Version as parameter.

### Back ticks

The bash shell has this wonderful capability of executing commands to get an argument by placing back ticks around a command. We can use the parentheses for the same effect, with the added benefit that the parentheses work recursively.

g! echo Bundle ($bundle bundleid) has name ((bundle ($bundle bundleid)) symbolicname)
Bundle 4 has name org.apache.felix.scr


### Functions

The Gogo shell can store commands for later execution. The { and } delimiters are used for that purpose. We can store these functions in objects or pass them as parameters. To execute a function as a command, you should use the name of the variable without the dollar (‘$’) sign. g! f = { echo Hello } echo Hello g! f Hello  You can pass arguments to the function. They are named$1..$9.$0 is the command name if available. The $it macro refers to$1.

g! f = { echo $it } echo$1
g! f Hello World
Hello


Obviously, it is not very nice that we miss the World because we only used $1. There is a magic variable called $args. This variable is list that gets expanded into separate arguments. So we can change our function to use all the arguments when the function is invoked:

g! f = { echo $args } echo$args
g! f Hello         World
Hello World


The $args list of arguments cannot be manipulated as a normal object, it gets expanded into its members wherever you use it. ### Repeat and Conditionals Gogo provides a number of built in commands that use the functions to provide conditional and repeated execution. For example, the each command takes a collection and a function. It then iterates over the collection and calls the function with the element of the iteration. g! each [1 2 3] { echo --$it --  }
-- 1 --
-- 2 --
-- 3 --
null
null
null


We can now also use the if command:

g! l = []
g! if {$l isempty} { echo empty } { echo not empty } empty g!$l add foo
g! if {$l isempty} { echo empty } { echo not empty } not empty  You can negate with the not command, which takes a function: g! if { not {$l isempty}} { echo not empty } { echo empty }
not empty


TODO while, until

You can add any object as a command. If you add an instance then the methods of that instance will be available as commands. However, make sure that you can only add one instance of a given type. The commands would overshadow each other. For example, we could add a list as a command. Since this is an Array List, all its methods become available.

g! addcommand silly-scope [1 2 3 4]
g! size
4
g! isempty
false
g! get 3
4
g!


Clearly, this is not that useful. However, it is also possible to add all static methods of a class. This is done automatically for you at startup with the System class. If you ask for the properties then this is actually calling the static method getProperties(). For example, we can add all the Math functions to be in the math scope.

g! addcommand math ((bundle 0) loadclass java.lang.Math)
g! sin 2
0.9092974268256817
g!


The ((bundle 0) loadclass java.lang.Math) is caused by a bug in Gogo. It overloads the addCommand() methods in such a way that Gogo cannot coerce the string java.lang.Math to a class. Ah well.

## Prompt

The g! prompt is not hard coded. You can override the prompt by setting the variable prompt (Surprise!). The value can be a simple string:

g! prompt = "$"$ sin 2
0.9092974268256817
$ However, Gogo would not be Gogo if we could not do this a little more exciting. Let’s be original and add the name of the local host. For that, we need to add the InetAddress static methods to our command set. g! addcommand inet ((bundle 0) loadclass java.net.InetAddress) g! prompt = { echo ((localhost) hostname) "$ " }
zeno.local $ ## Formatting Gogo was designed to format an object to a string in two places. • Send to a pipe – This is controlled by .Format.Pipe • Send to the user – This is controlled by .Gogo.format ## Exceptions You (and any code you call) can throw exceptions. The last exception is stored in the $exception variable and there is a built in function e that shows the stack trace.

g! throw Foo
Foo
g! $exception message Foo g! e java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Foo at org.apache.felix.gogo.shell.Procedural._throw(Procedural.java:83) ...  You can also catch the exceptions with a try command. g! exception = null g! try { throw Foo } g!$exception
g!


Of course we now silently ignore the exception, not a good idea. So we can provide a catch function that receives the exception as the \$it variable.

g! try { throw Foo } { echo ouch }
ouch
g!


## Providing a Command

Bundles that can add commands to the shell by registering any service with the osgi.command.scope property and osgi.command.function service properties. The Gogo shell then call any method name listed in the osgi.command.function property. To disambiguate, the osgi.command.scope can be used by prefixing the command with the scope and a ‘:’. The constants for these properties can be found in osgi.enroute.debug.api.Debug.

For example, assume the following component is registered:

@Component(
property = {
Debug.COMMAND_SCOPE + "=hello", //
Debug.COMMAND_FUNCTION + "=world" //
}
)
public class FooImpl implements Foo {

public void sysout() {
System.out.println("Hello World");
}
}


A primary goal of the design was to make it possible to add commands to existing service implementation objects.

## Using the Shell

In the shell, we can now call the function:

g! sysout
Hello World
g! hello:sysout
Hello World


In the example we use System.out. For some surprisingly, this is ok, even if the shell is accessed via SSH or telnet. The Gogo shell redirects System.out for the duration of a command. However, the command is currently not usable for other code. It would be nicer if we could return the text:

public String value() {
return "Hello World";
}


No running it in the shell makes it look the same:

g! value
Hello World


### Arguments

We can also provide an argument. Gogo attempts to use a syntax that one expects in a shell but then translate this to method calls. So if we have the command:

public String parameter(String parameter) {
return "Hello " + parameter;
}


So let’s try this out:

g! parameter OSGi
Hello OSGi


It is also quite easy to make the parameter an option:

public String option(
@Parameter(
absentValue="World",
names={"-p","--parameter"})
String parameter
) {
return "Hello " + parameter;
}


Since we have an absent value, we do not need the value to be specified. So we can call the command with and without a parameter.

g! option
Hello World
g! option -p OSGi
Hello OSGi
g! option --parameter OSGi
Hello OSGi


### Naming

So far we have had a 1:1 relation between the command name and the method. However, it was a primary design goal of Gogo to make it feel like a shell but interact seamlessly with standard Java code. In Java we often use design patterns like prefixing the name of a property with get. Gogo will therefore try to match a command to a method removing the prefixes and case sensitivity. So if we add a method getFoo then we can still call it:

public String getFoo() {
return "Foo";
}


We can now call this command in many different ways.

g! foo
Foo
g! FOO
Foo
g! Foo
Foo